Bridge Design Pattern in Rust

1. Definition

The Bridge design pattern is a structural pattern that decouples an abstraction from its implementation, allowing the two to vary independently. This pattern involves breaking down a monolithic system into two separate hierarchies: the abstraction and the implementation.

2. Problem Statement

Consider you're designing a graphics application that needs to draw shapes. As your application grows, you want to support different rendering engines (like OpenGL or DirectX) and different shapes (like circles or rectangles). The combinations can become complex if every shape class needs to manage its rendering.

3. Solution

The Bridge pattern separates the shape representation (abstraction) from the actual rendering (implementation). So, you can have a separate hierarchy for rendering engines and another for shapes. The shape classes will use a reference to the rendering interface, allowing decoupling and independent extensibility.

4. Real-World Use Cases

1. Different UI rendering engines in a cross-platform application.

2. Connecting to various database systems from an ORM.

3. Different drawing routines in graphical systems.

5. Implementation Steps

1. Define the abstraction (e.g., Shape) that maintains a reference to an implementor (e.g., Renderer).

2. Define the implementor interface (e.g., Renderer) for concrete implementors.

3. Create concrete classes for the abstraction and the implementor.

6. Implementation in Rust Programming

// Step 1 & 2: Define the abstraction and the implementor interface
// Implementor
pub trait Renderer {
    fn render_circle(&self, radius: f32);
// Abstraction
pub struct Circle {
    radius: f32,
    renderer: Box<dyn Renderer>,
impl Circle {
    pub fn new(radius: f32, renderer: Box<dyn Renderer>) -> Self {
        Circle { radius, renderer }
    pub fn draw(&self) {
// Step 3: Concrete implementations
pub struct OpenGLRenderer;
impl Renderer for OpenGLRenderer {
    fn render_circle(&self, radius: f32) {
        println!("OpenGL: Drawing a circle of radius {}", radius);
pub struct DirectXRenderer;
impl Renderer for DirectXRenderer {
    fn render_circle(&self, radius: f32) {
        println!("DirectX: Drawing a circle of radius {}", radius);
// Client code
fn main() {
    let opengl = OpenGLRenderer;
    let directx = DirectXRenderer;
    let circle_opengl = Circle::new(5.0, Box::new(opengl));
    let circle_directx = Circle::new(10.0, Box::new(directx));


"OpenGL: Drawing a circle of radius 5.0"
"DirectX: Drawing a circle of radius 10.0"


1. Renderer is the implementor interface containing the rendering methods.

2. Circle is the abstraction that maintains a reference to a renderer (Renderer).

3. OpenGLRenderer and DirectXRenderer are concrete implementations of the Renderer interface.

4. In the client code, we create two circles using two different renderers, showcasing the flexibility and decoupling provided by the Bridge pattern.

7. When to use?

The Bridge pattern is applicable when:

1. You want to avoid a permanent binding between an abstraction and its implementation.

2. Both the abstractions and their implementations should be extensible independently.

3. Changes in the implementation of an abstraction shouldn't affect its clients.