Command Design Pattern in Kotlin

1. Definition

The Command Design Pattern encapsulates a request as an object, thereby allowing users to parameterize other objects with different requests, queue requests, and support undoable operations.

2. Problem Statement

Imagine you're building a software remote control for a multimedia system. You have various actions like play, pause, rewind, etc. You want to decouple the buttons from the specific actions, and you also want the flexibility to change which action a button triggers without changing the button's implementation.

3. Solution

The Command Pattern allows you to wrap each individual operation into a command object. These command objects can then be invoked independently, providing a decoupling between the object invoking the command and the object performing the operation.

4. Real-World Use Cases

1. Undo and redo functionality in software applications.

2. Macro recording in software applications.

3. Task scheduling and management systems.

5. Implementation Steps

1. Define a command interface with an execute method.

2. Implement concrete command classes that encapsulate a receiver and invoke the corresponding operation on it.

3. Define an invoker class that can store and execute command objects.

6. Implementation in Kotlin

// Step 1: Define the command interface
interface Command {
    fun execute()
// Step 2: Implement concrete command classes
class PlayCommand(private val multimediaSystem: MultimediaSystem) : Command {
    override fun execute() {
class PauseCommand(private val multimediaSystem: MultimediaSystem) : Command {
    override fun execute() {
// The receiver class
class MultimediaSystem {
    fun play() {
        println("Playing multimedia")
    fun pause() {
        println("Pausing multimedia")
// Step 3: Define the invoker
class RemoteControl(private val command: Command) {
    fun pressButton() {
fun main() {
    val multimediaSystem = MultimediaSystem()
    val playCommand = PlayCommand(multimediaSystem)
    val pauseCommand = PauseCommand(multimediaSystem)
    val remoteControlPlay = RemoteControl(playCommand)
    val remoteControlPause = RemoteControl(pauseCommand)


Playing multimedia
Pausing multimedia


1. We first define a Command interface, which all command objects will implement. This interface has a single method execute which triggers the encapsulated action.

2. We then create concrete command classes PlayCommand and PauseCommand that wrap around a receiver, in this case, MultimediaSystem. Each command class knows how to invoke its action on the receiver.

3. We then have an invoker RemoteControl which, when its button is pressed, invokes the execute method of its associated command.

4. In the main function, we create instances of our commands, link them to our multimedia system, and then use the remote controls to trigger the actions.

7. When to use?

The Command Pattern is useful when:

1. You want to decouple the sender and the receiver by putting a command object between them.

2. You want to support undo/redo functionality.

3. You want to queue operations or schedule their execution.

4. You want to parameterize objects with different operations.