Binary Tree Implementation in Swift

1. Introduction

A Binary Tree is a hierarchical data structure in which each node has at most two children: left child and right child. It's a fundamental concept widely used in computer science, particularly in the development of data storage systems and algorithms like sorting and searching.

2. Implementation Steps

1. Define a Node class to represent each node in the binary tree.

2. Define a BinaryTree class to manage the nodes.

3. Implement methods to insert, search, and traverse the binary tree.

3. Implementation in Swift

// 1. Definition of the Node class
class Node<T> {
    var value: T
    var left: Node?
    var right: Node?
    init(value: T) {
        self.value = value
// 2. Definition of the BinaryTree class
class BinaryTree<T: Comparable> {
    var root: Node<T>?
    // Insert a value into the binary tree
    func insert(_ value: T) {
        root = insert(from: root, value: value)
    private func insert(from node: Node<T>?, value: T) -> Node<T> {
        // If the node is empty, return a new node
        guard let node = node else {
            return Node(value: value)
        // Otherwise, insert the value to the left or right
        if value < node.value {
            node.left = insert(from: node.left, value: value)
        } else if value > node.value {
            node.right = insert(from: node.right, value: value)
        return node
    // Search for a value in the binary tree
    func search(_ value: T) -> Bool {
        return search(from: root, value: value)
    private func search(from node: Node<T>?, value: T) -> Bool {
        guard let node = node else {
            return false
        if value == node.value {
            return true
        } else if value < node.value {
            return search(from: node.left, value: value)
        } else {
            return search(from: node.right, value: value)
    // Print the tree's values in inorder traversal
    func inorderTraversal() {
        inorderTraversal(from: root)
    private func inorderTraversal(from node: Node<T>?) {
        guard let node = node else { return }
        inorderTraversal(from: node.left)
        print(node.value, terminator: " ")
        inorderTraversal(from: node.right)
// Example Usage
let tree = BinaryTree<Int>()
tree.inorderTraversal()  // Outputs: 1 3 4 5 7 8 9


1 3 4 5 7 8 9


1. The Node class represents each node in the binary tree. Each node contains a value and references to its left and right children.

2. The BinaryTree class manages the root and provides methods to insert and search for values in the tree.

3. The insert method places new values in the tree, maintaining the binary tree properties. If the value is less than the current node's value, it goes to the left; otherwise, it goes to the right.

4. The search method searches for a given value in the tree, returning true if found and false otherwise.

5. The inorderTraversal method prints the values of the tree in increasing order. It's a type of depth-first traversal that visits the left subtree, the current node, and then the right subtree.

Binary trees serve as the foundation for more advanced data structures like binary search trees, AVL trees, and heaps. They're essential for a wide range of applications, from databases to graphics rendering.