Abstract Factory Design Pattern in Swift

1. Definition

The Abstract Factory is a creational design pattern that lets you produce families of related objects without specifying their concrete classes.

2. Problem Statement

Imagine you're developing a cross-platform UI library that should support multiple themes like light and dark. You would want to ensure that for each theme, every UI element (buttons, checkboxes, etc.) looks consistent. Hard-coding every variant of each UI element would be impractical and would violate the Open/Closed principle.

3. Solution

The Abstract Factory pattern solves this problem by introducing a set of factory methods for creating entire product families, i.e., a factory of factories. Each factory method in an abstract factory corresponds to a product type.

4. Real-World Use Cases

1. A UI library that supports multiple themes.

2. Database drivers for different databases, ensuring consistent interaction regardless of the underlying database.

5. Implementation Steps

1. Declare abstract product interfaces for each type of product.

2. Implement concrete product classes for each product family.

3. Declare the abstract factory interface with a list of creation methods for all abstract products.

4. Implement a set of concrete factories corresponding to each product family.

6. Implementation in Swift Programming

// Step 1: Declare abstract product interfaces.
protocol Button {
    func render()
protocol Checkbox {
    func check()
// Step 2: Implement concrete product classes for light theme.
class LightButton: Button {
    func render() {
        print("Rendering a light-themed button.")
class LightCheckbox: Checkbox {
    func check() {
        print("Checking a light-themed checkbox.")
// Implement concrete product classes for dark theme.
class DarkButton: Button {
    func render() {
        print("Rendering a dark-themed button.")
class DarkCheckbox: Checkbox {
    func check() {
        print("Checking a dark-themed checkbox.")
// Step 3: Declare the abstract factory interface.
protocol GUIFactory {
    func createButton() -> Button
    func createCheckbox() -> Checkbox
// Step 4: Implement concrete factories.
class LightThemeFactory: GUIFactory {
    func createButton() -> Button {
        return LightButton()
    func createCheckbox() -> Checkbox {
        return LightCheckbox()
class DarkThemeFactory: GUIFactory {
    func createButton() -> Button {
        return DarkButton()
    func createCheckbox() -> Checkbox {
        return DarkCheckbox()
// Usage
func displayUI(using factory: GUIFactory) {
    let button = factory.createButton()
    let checkbox = factory.createCheckbox()
let lightFactory = LightThemeFactory()
let darkFactory = DarkThemeFactory()
displayUI(using: lightFactory)
displayUI(using: darkFactory)


Rendering a light-themed button.
Checking a light-themed checkbox.
Rendering a dark-themed button.
Checking a dark-themed checkbox.


1. We have abstract product interfaces Button and Checkbox.

2. There are concrete implementations for both light and dark themes.

3. The GUIFactory interface is our abstract factory, which has methods to create products (Button, Checkbox).

4. LightThemeFactory and DarkThemeFactory are concrete factories that produce products of their respective themes.

5. In usage, based on the factory passed to displayUI, the appropriate theme of UI elements is rendered.

7. When to use?

The Abstract Factory pattern is useful when:

1. The system needs to be independent of the way its objects are created, composed, and represented.

2. The system needs to be configured with multiple families of products.

3. Products from a family are designed to work together, and it's crucial to ensure that an application uses objects from only one family.