Python Facade Design Pattern

1. Definition

The Facade Design Pattern provides a simplified interface to a complex subsystem. It doesn't encapsulate the subsystem but provides a higher-level API that makes the subsystem easier to use.

2. Problem Statement

Imagine dealing with a complex subsystem with dozens of intricate objects and interfaces. Integrating this subsystem into an application directly leads to a high degree of complexity and potential errors.

3. Solution

Introduce an object that serves as a front-facing interface, masking the complex subsystem behind a simpler, more comprehensible facade. This pattern allows for isolating clients from the complexities of the internal subsystem components.

4. Real-World Use Cases

1. Home theater systems where one button can set up lights, audio, and video, and set the room to cinema mode.

2. Computer startup: Pressing one button triggers a series of actions to start the computer.

3. APIs that hide complexity and provide a simple, user-friendly interface.

5. Implementation Steps

1. Identify a simpler, unified interface that would cover the functionalities of the complex subsystem.

2. Implement the facade class that aggregates the components of the subsystem and provides a simplified interface.

3. Update client code to communicate with the system through the facade.

6. Implementation in Python

# Complex subsystem classes
class CPU:
    def start(self):
        return "CPU started"
class Memory:
    def load(self):
        return "Memory loaded"
class HardDrive:
    def read(self):
        return "HardDrive read"
# Facade class
class Computer:
    def __init__(self):
        self._cpu = CPU()
        self._memory = Memory()
        self._hard_drive = HardDrive()
    def start_computer(self):
        results = []
        return results
# Client code
computer = Computer()
output = computer.start_computer()


['CPU started', 'Memory loaded', 'HardDrive read']


1. CPU, Memory, and HardDrive represent the complex subsystem with their own methods and complexities.

2. The Computer class is our facade that provides a higher-level API, start_computer, to start the computer, masking the complexities of the underlying components.

3. The client simply interacts with the Computer class and does not have to worry about the intricate details of the subsystem.

7. When to use?

Use the Facade pattern when:

1. You want to provide a simple interface to a complex subsystem, making it more accessible and understandable.

2. The abstractions and implementations of a subsystem are tightly coupled, and you want to decouple them.

3. You want to layer your subsystems and want to define entry points for each layer.