Transaction Management in Spring Data JPA: A Step-by-Step Tutorial

Transaction management is a critical aspect of any application that interacts with a database. It ensures data integrity and consistency. Spring Data JPA provides robust support for transaction management, allowing you to define transactional boundaries declaratively. This tutorial will guide you through the process of implementing transaction management in a Spring Boot 3.2 application using Spring Data JPA.


  • JDK 17 or later
  • Maven or Gradle
  • IDE (IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, etc.)

Step 1: Set Up a Spring Boot Project

1.1 Create a New Spring Boot Project

Use Spring Initializr to create a new project with the following dependencies:

  • Spring Web
  • Spring Data JPA
  • H2 Database (or any other database of your choice)

Download and unzip the project, then open it in your IDE.

1.2 Configure

Set up the application properties for your project. This file is located in the src/main/resources directory.

# src/main/resources/

# H2 Database configuration

# JPA configuration


  • Configures the H2 in-memory database.
  • Enables SQL logging.
  • Sets up JPA to update the database schema automatically.

Step 2: Define the Entity Class

2.1 Create the User Entity

Create an entity class to represent a user in the database.

package com.example.demo.entity;

import jakarta.persistence.Entity;
import jakarta.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import jakarta.persistence.GenerationType;
import jakarta.persistence.Id;

public class User {

    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long id;
    private String name;
    private String email;
    private int age;

    // Getters and setters
    public Long getId() {
        return id;

    public void setId(Long id) { = id;

    public String getName() {
        return name;

    public void setName(String name) { = name;

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;

    public void setEmail(String email) { = email;

    public int getAge() {
        return age;

    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;


  • @Entity: Specifies that the class is an entity and is mapped to a database table.
  • @Id and @GeneratedValue: Indicates the primary key and its generation strategy.

Step 3: Create the Repository Interface

3.1 Create the UserRepository

Create a repository interface to perform CRUD operations on the User entity.

package com.example.demo.repository;

import com.example.demo.entity.User;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Repository;

public interface UserRepository extends JpaRepository<User, Long> {


  • @Repository: Indicates that the interface is a Spring Data repository.
  • JpaRepository<User, Long>: Provides CRUD operations for the User entity.

Step 4: Create Service and Controller Layers

4.1 Create the UserService

Create a service class to handle business logic related to users and to demonstrate transaction management.

package com.example.demo.service;

import com.example.demo.entity.User;
import com.example.demo.repository.UserRepository;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
import org.springframework.transaction.annotation.Transactional;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Optional;

public class UserService {

    private UserRepository userRepository;

    public List<User> getAllUsers() {
        return userRepository.findAll();

    public Optional<User> getUserById(Long id) {
        return userRepository.findById(id);

    public User createUser(User user) {

    public void updateUserEmail(Long id, String email) {
        Optional<User> userOptional = userRepository.findById(id);
        if (userOptional.isPresent()) {
            User user = userOptional.get();

    public void deleteUser(Long id) {

    public void performTransactionalOperation(User user, Long id, String newEmail) {
        updateUserEmail(id, newEmail);
        // Here you can perform more operations that should be part of the same transaction


  • @Service: Marks the class as a service component in Spring.
  • @Transactional: Marks methods as transactional, ensuring that all operations within the method are executed within a single transaction.
  • performTransactionalOperation: Demonstrates a composite transactional operation.

4.2 Create the UserController

Create a REST controller to expose endpoints for interacting with users.

package com.example.demo.controller;

import com.example.demo.entity.User;
import com.example.demo.service.UserService;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.*;

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Optional;

public class UserController {

    private UserService userService;

    public List<User> getAllUsers() {
        return userService.getAllUsers();

    public Optional<User> getUserById(@PathVariable Long id) {
        return userService.getUserById(id);

    public User createUser(@RequestBody User user) {
        return userService.createUser(user);

    public void updateUserEmail(@PathVariable Long id, @RequestParam String email) {
        userService.updateUserEmail(id, email);

    public void deleteUser(@PathVariable Long id) {

    public void performTransactionalOperation(@RequestBody User user, @RequestParam Long id, @RequestParam String newEmail) {
        userService.performTransactionalOperation(user, id, newEmail);


  • @RestController: Marks the class as a REST controller.
  • @RequestMapping("/users"): Maps the controller to /users endpoint.
  • @GetMapping, @PostMapping, @PutMapping, @DeleteMapping: Maps HTTP GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE requests respectively.
  • @RequestBody: Binds the HTTP request body to the User parameter.
  • @PathVariable: Binds the URI template variable to the method parameter.
  • @RequestParam: Binds the query parameter to the method parameter.

Step 5: Running and Testing the Application

5.1 Run the Application

Run the Spring Boot application using your IDE or the command line:

./mvnw spring-boot:run

5.2 Test the Endpoints

Use a tool like Postman or your browser to test the endpoints.

Create a User

  • URL: http://localhost:8080/users
  • Method: POST
  • Body:
        "name": "John Doe",
        "email": "",
        "age": 30

Get All Users

  • URL: http://localhost:8080/users
  • Method: GET

Get a User by ID

  • URL: http://localhost:8080/users/{id}
  • Method: GET

Update a User's Email

  • URL: http://localhost:8080/users/{id}/email
  • Method: PUT
  • Params:

Delete a User

  • URL: http://localhost:8080/users/{id}
  • Method: DELETE

Perform a Transactional Operation

  • URL: http://localhost:8080/users/transactional
  • Method: POST
  • Body:
        "name": "Jane Doe",
        "email": "",
        "age": 25
  • Params: id=1&


In this tutorial, you have learned how to implement transaction management in a Spring Boot 3.2 application using Spring Data JPA. We covered:

  • Setting up a Spring Boot project with Spring Data JPA.
  • Defining an entity class and repository.
  • Creating service and controller layers.
  • Using the @Transactional annotation to manage transactions.
  • Running and testing the application using REST endpoints.

By following these steps, you can ensure data integrity and consistency in your Spring Boot applications using Spring Data JPA's transaction management capabilities.