Spring Boot @Repository Example

1. Introduction

The @Repository annotation in Spring Boot signifies that an annotated class is a "Repository," which abstracts the data layer, providing a mechanism for encapsulation of storage, retrieval, and search behavior. It's a specialization of @Component, allowing implementation classes to be autodetected through classpath scanning.

Key Points:

1. @Repository is used to mark classes at the persistence layer, which will act as a database repository.

2. It is a marker for any class that fulfills the role or stereotype of a repository (also known as Data Access Object or DAO).

3. The @Repository annotation also encapsulates the specific technology used for data access operations, like JDBC, JPA, or Hibernate.

2. Implementation Steps

1. Define a Spring Boot application with data access dependencies (like JPA, Hibernate, or JDBC).

2. Create an interface to serve as a repository for your entity classes.

3. Implement the repository interface with a class annotated with @Repository.

4. Inject the repository into your services or controllers using @Autowired.

5. Use the repository to perform database operations.

6. Test the application to ensure that the repository is interacting with the database as expected.

3. Implementation Example

Here is the complete code that demonstrates the usage of @Repository annotation:
// Step 2: Create an interface for the repository
public interface UserRepository extends JpaRepository<User, Long> {
    // JpaRepository provides some basic CRUD and finder methods

// Step 3: Implement the interface, Spring Data JPA will provide the implementation
public interface UserRepositoryImpl extends UserRepository {
    // Additional query methods can be defined here

// Define an Entity for User
class User {
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.AUTO)
    private Long id;
    private String name;
    // Getters and setters omitted for brevity

// Step 4: Use the repository in a service
public class UserService {

    private final UserRepository userRepository;

    public UserService(UserRepository userRepository) {
        this.userRepository = userRepository;

    public User createUser(String name) {
        User newUser = new User();
        return userRepository.save(newUser);

// Step 5: Define a controller to use the UserService
public class UserController {

    private final UserService userService;

    public UserController(UserService userService) {
        this.userService = userService;

    public ResponseEntity<User> createUser(@RequestParam String name) {
        User user = userService.createUser(name);
        return new ResponseEntity<>(user, HttpStatus.CREATED);

// Step 6: Main application class to run the Spring Boot application
public class RepositoryAnnotationExampleApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(RepositoryAnnotationExampleApplication.class, args);


    "id": 1,
    "name": "John"


1. UserRepository extends JpaRepository, leveraging Spring Data JPA to provide basic CRUD operations without implementation.

2. UserRepositoryImpl is marked with @Repository, indicating that Spring should create a bean for the repository.

3. User is an entity representing a user in the system with an autogenerated ID.

4. UserService is a service layer bean that uses UserRepository to save new User entities.

5. UserController is a @RestController that handles HTTP POST requests to "/users" and uses UserService to create new users.

6. RepositoryAnnotationExampleApplication contains the main method that boots the Spring Boot application.

7. Upon making a POST request to "/users", UserController calls UserService, which in turn uses UserRepository to persist a new User. A JSON representation of the created User is returned.

8. The output shows the JSON object for the created user with a status of 201 Created, indicating the user successfully persisted.